Potential Benefits of Coffee for Health and Life Expectancy - CalorieBee - Diet & Exercise
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Potential Benefits of Coffee for Health and Life Expectancy

Linda Crampton is a teacher with an honors degree in biology. She enjoys exploring nutrition as well as the culture and history of food.

A Healthy Beverage With Some Drawbacks

Coffee has had a reputation as a delicious but not-very-healthy beverage for a long time. Recently though—to the joy of coffee lovers everywhere that the news has reached—researchers have found that it may have some important health benefits. According to the investigators, drinking coffee significantly reduces the risk of several serious diseases that are more likely to strike us as we grow older, including type 2 diabetes, Parkinson's disease, prostate cancer, liver disease, liver cancer, one type of skin cancer, and Alzheimer's disease.

Experiencing fewer diseases, especially those that may be fatal, can do wonders for increasing our lifespan. It certainly seems that we would have a chance of living longer if we drank coffee regularly, but it would be nice to have evidence for this assumption. Interestingly, there is some evidence for increased lifespan in coffee drinkers.

In May, 2012, The New England Journal of Medicine published the results of an almost fourteen year study of over 400,000 people. People who drank coffee every day were significantly less likely to die than non-coffee drinkers. In 2017, Spanish scientists reported that people who drank at least four cups of coffee a day had a 64% reduced risk of dying compared to the people in their survey who drank no or very little coffee. This study involved around 20,000 people and lasted for ten years. Drinking coffee has some drawbacks, but according to the present state of our knowledge its potential benefits may far outweigh its disadvantages.

Coffee Drinking and Longevity

The survey of coffee drinkers published in The New England Journal of Medicine asked 400,000+ people to fill in a questionnaire at the start of the study. In this questionnaire, people aged 50 to 71 described their coffee drinking habits. Those who had a serious illness were excluded from the study, and the data from those who smoked was eliminated. After about 13.6 years, the people were surveyed again to see if they were still alive.

In general, the survey showed that the greater the number of cups of coffee drunk in one day, the lower the chance of dying. This trend held true up to and including four or five cups of coffee a day. At six cups a day the benefit was still present but had decreased slightly. The maximum decrease in death risk was 16% for women and 12% for men. The results were unaffected by whether the coffee was caffeinated or decaffeinated.

There have been criticisms of the study. First, as in any survey-type study, we can't prove that in every case coffee drinking kept someone alive. People may have lived longer because they had a healthier lifestyle than other people in the study or because they had genes that gave them longevity, for example. Another criticism is that people were asked about their coffee drinking habits only at the start of the survey. People's choice of beverage can change over a thirteen to fourteen year period. The large number of people involved in the survey helps to reduce the possible sources of error, however. The table below summarizes the results.

Coffee Consumption and Decrease in Death Risk

Cups of Coffee Drunk Per DayDecrease in Death Risk in FemalesDecrease in Death Risk in Males

one

5%

6%

two to three

13%

10%

four to five

16%

12%

six or more

15%

10%

The SUN Project

The study described at the European Society of Cardiology Congress in 2017 was also based on a survey and subject to the disadvantages of this type of research. It's interesting that like the 2012 study it supports the idea of increased lifespan due to coffee consumption, however. The study was part of the SUN project (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). The subjects were graduates from a Spanish university.

A 64% lower risk of all-cause mortality when at least four cups of coffee were drunk each day is much higher than the value obtained in the 2012 study. The researchers found that the benefits of drinking coffee were strongest for people who were at least forty-five years old. They say that their study was the first one done with people in a Mediterranean country. It's probably going to take some time to figure out the interactions between coffee drinking, typical diet and exercise habits in an area, environmental factors, and genetics. It certainly seems that coffee is beneficial with respect to lifespan, however.

Coffee fruit, berries, or cherries are green when unripe and red when ripe. Each cherry contains two coffee beans, or seeds.

Coffee fruit, berries, or cherries are green when unripe and red when ripe. Each cherry contains two coffee beans, or seeds.

Possible Reasons for Life Extension

There are two possible explanations for why coffee (apparently) reduces death risk. The beneficial effect could be due to coffee's ability to lower the risk of specific diseases and/or it could be due to helpful substances in the roasted coffee beans. The beans are believed to contain a thousand or more different chemicals, including antioxidants and antibacterial substances. One coffee antioxidant of special interest to researchers in relation to human health is chlorogenic acid, a member of the polyphenol family. Antioxidants fight potentially dangerous free radicals that are made in the body as chemical reactions occur.

Disease Reduction

The discoveries showing that coffee drinking reduces the risk of certain diseases are exciting. Some of the diseases are listed below. It should be noted that the statistics were obtained from surveys rather than clinical trials. While survey results are important, they don't provide definite proof that a substance has a health benefit.

  • Drinking four to five cups of caffeinated coffee every day in midlife has been shown to protect against Alzheimer's disease in old age. Starting to drink coffee at an older age has some protective benefit as well.
  • In mice, researchers have shown that caffeinated coffee reduces the buildup of beta-amyloid in the brain. This substance makes up the characteristic plaque seen in the brains of human Alzheimer's patients. Drinking other caffeinated beverages doesn't have the same benefit.
  • Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health analyzed data from the Nurses' Health Study ll (47,510 women), the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (27,759 men), and the Brigham and Women's Hospital-Based Nurses' Health Study (48,464 women). They found that people who increased their consumption of caffeinated coffee by more than one cup a day over a four-year period had an 11% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the following four years than those who made no change to their consumption.
  • In the study described above, people who lowered their consumption of caffeinated coffee by more than one cup a day had a 17% higher risk of type 2 diabetes.
  • Drinking two to three cups of caffeinated coffee a day seems to reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease by about 25%, according to an analysis of different research studies.
  • A small study has shown that the caffeine equivalent of three cups of coffee a day improves movement problems in people with Parkinson's disease.

Cancer Risk and Cardiovascular Problems

Coffee may reduce the risk of some types of cancer. The beverage seems to be both beneficial and detrimental with respect to cardiovascular problems.

  • According to a twelve year study of more than 47,000 men in the United States, the men who drank six or more cups of coffee a day had a 20% lower risk of developing prostate cancer and a 60% lower risk of developing the most dangerous form of prostate cancer. Drinking one to three cups of coffee a day resulted in a 30% lower risk of the most dangerous form of prostate cancer. The results of the study were unaffected by the amount of caffeine in the coffee.
  • Some surveys suggest that drinking coffee significantly reduces the rate of liver disease or liver cancer. A recent study discovered that the rate of hepatocellular cancer decreased as the number of extra cups of caffeinated coffee per day increased (up to five extra cups of the beverage a day). Decaffeinated coffee was also effective, but to a lesser extent.
  • A survey of 113,000 nurses and health professionals found that women who drank more than three cups of caffeinated coffee a day had a 21% lower chance of developing basal cell carcinoma, one form of skin cancer. Men had a 10% risk reduction. Consumption of an equivalent amount of caffeine from other foods or drinks had a similar benefit.
  • Some research suggests that coffee reduces the risk of heart attacks and strokes in the long term, but a few studies show that immediately after drinking the beverage the risk of a heart attack or stroke temporarily increases.

Different types of coffee may have different effects on health. This is a topic that needs to be investigated in more detail.

A Coffee Poll

Some Disadvantages of Drinking Coffee

There are disadvantages to drinking coffee. Some—but not all of them—can be avoided.

  • Coffee stains teeth. These stains can be reduced by rinsing the mouth out with water immediately after drinking the beverage, however. A dental hygienist can also remove the stains.
  • Unfiltered coffee contains two chemicals—cafestol and kahweol—which raise the level of LDL cholesterol in our blood. This is the type of cholesterol that can cause the buildup of fatty deposits in the lining of the arteries and increase the risk of a heart attack or stroke. Most coffee is filtered, however, which removes the chemicals. Espresso does contain cafestol and kahweol, but it's drunk in smaller quantities than other types of coffee.
  • In some people caffeine has a diuretic effect, increasing the person's need to urinate.
  • Coffee can relax muscles in the digestive tract and cause defecation and even diarrhea. In addition, it may cause acid reflux.
  • Caffeinated coffee may have a very energizing effect and produce "jitters" in sensitive people. It may also trigger heart palpitations.
  • Coffee has a dual effect on headaches. It has been found to make some pain relievers more effective, which can help a headache. On the other hand, drinking coffee can give some people a headache.
Additions to a cup of coffee can be delicious, but they may not be healthy.

Additions to a cup of coffee can be delicious, but they may not be healthy.

It's important to remember that discussions about coffee's potential health benefits are concerned with the beverage on its own and not with ingredients that may be added to it. These can make a big difference to any beneficial effects of the drink. Drinking several cups of coffee a day that contain added fat and sugar isn't healthy.

The Possible Role of Genetic Differences

If you already drink coffee, it's good to know that it most likely has important health benefits. Should you start drinking coffee if you don't already do so, or should you increase your consumption of the beverage? Scientists are reluctant to recommend this action, especially since there may be major drawbacks for some people.

In recent years, some scientists have suggested that our genetic makeup may affect our body's response to coffee and caffeine. Since we don't know what genes we possess, the best that we can do when deciding whether we should drink coffee is to observe our symptoms. For some people, the drawbacks of drinking the beverage may be too unpleasant. Continuing reports of coffee's health benefits make coffee consumption very tempting if there are no or only minor drawbacks, however.

References

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2012 Linda Crampton

Comments

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on November 22, 2017:

Thanks for the comment, Glenn. I must admit that I don't drink six cups of coffee a day! I hope that the amount that I do drink is beneficial, though.

Glenn Stok from Long Island, NY on November 22, 2017:

I'm a coffee drinker, but only one or two cups a day. Your article was very informative and well researched.

It's interesting that the antioxidants and antibacterial substances in coffee are found to help with all the ailments you mentioned, according to the various surveys that you referenced.

This makes me feel better that I have those two cups in the morning. Now I won't hesitate to have a little more since your research shows that up to six cups can have beneficial results.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on November 20, 2017:

Hi, Alexa. Thank you for the comment and for sharing the information. The different ways in which coffee affects us are interesting!

Alexa Rain from egypt on November 20, 2017:

very informative Hub, thank you.

i always drink coffee, and can't sleep with out drink a cup.

as usual coffee wakes up, but reverse happen to me.

i don't know why?

but from your hub i get that Coffee can relax muscles, may be that the reason.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on October 29, 2017:

Thanks for the visit and the comment, Margaret.

Margaret on October 29, 2017:

What a relief to coffee drinkers (like myself) everywhere! Coffee has historically been known to be just another habit, but not all habits are bad! And this just goes to prove that! I'm an active coffee drinker - gulping down at least 3-4 cups every day. Besides increasing my focus so I'm razor sharp, it's apparently helping me to reduce my risk of various diseases that as I get older, could become a more real possiblity. I'm looking at this cup of coffee thinking, I may just need another cup! Thanks for the article, Linda!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on October 03, 2017:

Thank you very much, Reubenjames.

Reubenjames on September 28, 2017:

Hi Linda, your article about coffee greatly impressed me. I love coffee too.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on September 17, 2017:

Thanks for the visit, Mary. There are a lot of interesting aspects to coffee!

Mary Norton from Ontario, Canada on September 17, 2017:

Hi Linda. This is one article on coffee that made me think and supplied me with useful info. We love to use the French Press so I need to look into this, maybe move to filtered coffee. The data in your poll is also interesting.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 20, 2017:

Thank, Andraya. I've become a coffee fan, too!

Andraya on August 20, 2017:

Great read! I love love love coffee so it made me feel better about my drinking habit ;)

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 06, 2017:

Hi, Angel. I can definitely understand why coffee is helpful when you have toddlers to care for!

Angel Guzman from Joliet, Illinois on May 03, 2017:

Coffee has become a valuable asset in my life from 2013 on in helping me have energy for my toddlers, lol.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on April 19, 2017:

Hi, Lucy. It's nice to meet you! I hope you enjoy coffee when you try it.

Lucy Brian on April 19, 2017:

Great hub!

I have never tried coffee but after reading this article , I'll try for sure.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 23, 2017:

I hope you have a long and healthy life, too, Glenis! Decaffeinated coffee does seem to have some health benefits, so it should be helpful.

Glen Rix from UK on March 23, 2017:

Interesting. I wonder if it is the caffeine that provides the beneficial effects - I drink only decaf nowadays. Keeping fingers crossed for a long and healthy life

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on November 01, 2015:

Thank you very much for the comment and the pin, Essie! I appreciate your visit.

Essie from Southern California on November 01, 2015:

This is certainly good news! Thank you for a lot of great information! I pinned it!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on October 11, 2015:

That sounds like a great idea, travel_man1971. Thanks for the comment.

Ireno Alcala from Bicol, Philippines on October 11, 2015:

I love drinking coffee, especially when I am engrossed at work. These days, I am mixing it with fresh herbs.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 14, 2015:

Thank you for the comment, vote and share, Nadine. It's great that coffee has some health benefits!

Nadine May from Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa on August 14, 2015:

That was the best news I've read in a long while! I love my coffee and drink between 2 to three cups a day without sugar but with frothed milk. Voted up and shared!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 20, 2015:

Thanks for the comment, Wendi. Coffee is an interesting beverage. It has both benefits and disadvantages!

Summer LeBlanc from USA on July 20, 2015:

You know, coffee makes my heart race and does all kinds of other bad 'stuff' to my body, however I do so love a good coffee with cream or milk! I wish I could drink it more often. Interesting hub, I didn't realize all of the health benefits!

-Wendi

Kristen Howe from Northeast Ohio on June 01, 2015:

Anytime my friend.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on June 01, 2015:

Thank you very much, Kristen. I appreciate your visit and vote!

Kristen Howe from Northeast Ohio on June 01, 2015:

Great hub, Alicia, on the many health benefits of drinking coffee. This is so good to know. Voted up!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on April 08, 2015:

Hi, peachpurple. Yes, there are some disadvantages to drinking coffee regularly as well as advantages.

peachy from Home Sweet Home on April 08, 2015:

there are pros and cons of drinking coffee lifelong maybe, but being a night owl is one of the disadvantages,

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on April 07, 2015:

Coffee brewed at home is great! Thanks for the comment.

DW Davis from Eastern NC on April 07, 2015:

I love my coffee, whether home brewed in my Keurig or made for me at my local coffee shop, I generally enjoy at least two cups a day. I'm glad to learn that doing so is working in my favor health wise.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 26, 2015:

Hi again, ladyguitarpicker. Thank you for the second comment. The factors that control human health are very complex. I wish we understood them better.

stella vadakin from 3460NW 50 St Bell, Fl32619 on January 26, 2015:

Thanks, I suppose we are the exception, but I like my coffee anyway.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

I am so sorry about the health problems that you and your husband are experiencing, ladyguitarpicker. Best wishes for the future. Thank you for commenting.

stella vadakin from 3460NW 50 St Bell, Fl32619 on January 18, 2015:

Hi, Very interesting but too late for me and my husband we both drink about 3 cups a day. I have had coffee since I was 5 years old every day. I have parkinson disease, and my husband has type 2 diabetes. Nice Hub.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 06, 2015:

Hi, agusfanani. It's good that coffee has some health benefits, since you like drinking it!

agusfanani from Indonesia on January 06, 2015:

It's good news for me since I love drinking coffee although I have to make sure not drink it excessively .

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on December 28, 2014:

Thanks for the comment, Joyfulcrown. I hope you enjoy your cup of coffee!

Joyfulcrown on December 28, 2014:

I drink a cup of coffee about 2 to 3 times a week. I am glad I read this hub. I think I'll have a cup of coffee now.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on December 01, 2014:

Thanks, monia. I like coffee, too, although I only drink it in a dilute form.

monia ben saad from In my Dream on December 01, 2014:

i love cofee so much and it makes me problem heart and try to solve the problem thank you for this great article

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on September 16, 2014:

Thank you for the comment, Melinda!

Melinda Longoria MSM from Garland, Texas on September 16, 2014:

Drink more coffee & live longer! :-) This is the best news to my ears. Thank you for sharing this information.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on September 14, 2014:

I think that drinking both coffee and tea is a great idea! I do the same thing. Thank you very much for the comment.

Venkatachari M from Hyderabad, India on September 13, 2014:

It is a very beautiful and interesting hub. Full of facts and figures. I love coffee and take two cups daily and two cups tea. Coffee looks more tasty and delicious than tea.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on September 12, 2014:

I drink coffee every day, so I'm happy, too! Thanks for the visit, Marlene.

Marlene Bertrand from USA on September 12, 2014:

I'm a coffee drinker. So, when I read about studies that show coffee is not as bad as formerly claimed, I'm happy.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 22, 2014:

You certainly are a coffee lover, Rachael! I enjoy drinking coffee, but I don't feel quite as strongly about it as you do! Thank you very much for the comment.

Rachael O'Halloran from United States on August 22, 2014:

Give me coffee or give me death. Yes, that's how I feel about it. I loved this article - with my after dinner cup of coffee!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 22, 2014:

Thanks, Arachnea. It is interesting that researchers are finding so many health benefits in coffee!

Tanya Jones from Texas USA on August 22, 2014:

It's interested me over the last year or so to read articles about the benefits of coffee. The double benefit is I'm an avid coffee drinker to start. Love your hub.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 20, 2014:

Hi, VioletteRose. I like tea and coffee, too! They are both enjoyable beverages, and each has health benefits. Thanks for the comment.

VioletteRose from Atlanta on August 20, 2014:

Good to know about the benefits of coffee! Even though I prefer tea over coffee, now a days I have at least one cup of coffee every day.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 13, 2014:

What a shock to find out that it was so early, Peg! On the other hand, it's great that your dog is still around and behaving normally, even if his/ her body can't follow the usual schedule any longer. Thanks for the second comment.

Peg Cole from Northeast of Dallas, Texas on August 13, 2014:

Up early today and wishing for my cup of coffee. My older dog (14) started barking to go out at 4:30 am and I thought it was 5:30 so I stayed up. This was great to read again while I wait for the coffee pot to finish dripping.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 05, 2014:

You've raised some good points, Tolovaj! Having a drink of coffee or tea can often be a relaxing and pleasant activity in an otherwise busy day. Thanks for the interesting comment.

Tolovaj on July 05, 2014:

I'm fascinated wit all this info. Although I will not start drinking coffee, I can agree with you, but I suspect apart from the chemicals in coffee there must be something related with a life style of coffee drinkers. Having a cup of coffee means having some quality time (alone or in company), knowing how to relax for at least few minutes, lower your stress ...

I think drinking a glass of wine of tea can be beneficial for same reasons. Cheers!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on June 26, 2014:

Thanks for the vote, Suhail! I appreciate your visit. Tea is a very healthy beverage, so it's great that you drink it. (I like French Vanilla coffee, too!)

Suhail Zubaid aka Clark Kent from Mississauga, ON on June 26, 2014:

Never knew the health benefits of drinking coffee! I hardly drink coffee, save Tim Hortons' French Vanilla (not sure if it qualifies as one lol).

Hi Linda,

This is a very informative article. Thumbs up!

I tried coffee for one full year (2012 to 2013) and then gave up completely again. I have always been a tea-totaller and had planned to remain the same, but now your article has shed new light and I have to rethink the strategy.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on June 02, 2014:

Thank you for the comment, joedolphin88. Drinking water is great for health!

Joe from north miami FL on June 02, 2014:

Great information my mom drinks a lot of coffee she couldn't be without it. Me on the other hand I really only drink water but for future reference I love the info.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on April 13, 2014:

Thank you very much for the comment, Christina. I appreciate the vote, too!

Christina Lornemark from Sweden on April 13, 2014:

Good to know that coffee has some health benefits also since I drink several cups of coffee every day. A morning without coffee would be a disaster:) Thanks for all the good information and now I can enjoy my coffee even more. Voted up!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on February 26, 2014:

Thanks, Rosie writes. I appreciate the visit and the vote!

Audrey Surma from Virginia on February 26, 2014:

I love my coffee - could probably do without the sugar though. Interesting information. Voted up!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on February 15, 2014:

Hi, LWhip. Yes, I think coffee would be a big help with four children in the family! Thank you very much for the comment. It's nice to meet you!

LWhip on February 15, 2014:

I really enjoyed your hub AliciaC. I'm glad to hear that there is now at least one thing I'm doing right (regardless of the concerns regarding the methodology - I'm ignoring that part).

I have 4 kids.

I have coffee.

Nellieanna Hay from TEXAS on February 12, 2014:

(big smile!)

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on February 11, 2014:

Hi, Nellieanna. I enjoy some herbal teas too, such as rooibos tea. I like ginger and mint herbal teas as well. There are so many lovely beverages available today!

Nellieanna Hay from TEXAS on February 11, 2014:

I love tea, as well, Alicia. It gives its own special pleasure and sense of satisfaction; but it's not quite the immediate 'lift' of coffee. I wouldn't want to have to choose to limit it to only one or the other. I also love some herbal teas, especially ginger.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on February 10, 2014:

I'm becoming a coffee lover, too, after having drunk only tea for most of my life. In fact, I'm drinking coffee so often now that I have to remind myself to drink tea instead of coffee sometimes, since I want to experience tea's health benefits as well! Thank you for the interesting comment, Nellieanna.

Nellieanna Hay from TEXAS on February 10, 2014:

Great news for me! I've heard a bit about studies showing health value of coffee but nothing specific. I've loved coffee all my life. When I was a kid, my parents wouldn't let me drink it, but put a dash of it in my milk, which I didn't like so much. I've never been a smoker and didn't drink any alcohol till in my 40s and am moderate with it, but I truly love my coffee. There was one period when I was almost never without a cup from the time I awoke till I went to bed, but I began to be jittery, as you mention can happen, so I regulated my intake after that. What is nice about doing that it that having a cup is such a treat when one does have it! :-) I've no blood pressure problems, so maybe it just helps keep it normal rather than too low.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on October 16, 2013:

Thank you very much for the comment, SamitaJassi.

Samita Sharma from Chandigarh on October 16, 2013:

Good information and thoroughly discussed. Thanks for this useful summary of Coffee Drinking and Life Expectancy.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 27, 2013:

I add cocoa to my coffee sometimes too, Rosie. It's a delicious combination! Thank you for the visit and the comment.

Audrey Surma from Virginia on August 27, 2013:

I am an avid coffee-drinker. I have been every since long nights studying for exams in college, back when I used to add cocoa to it to make it taste better. Now I just add a little cream and sugar and have to have it first thing in the morning.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on June 05, 2013:

Hi, Peg. Unlike you, I didn't start drinking coffee until only a few years ago. I got into the habit of drinking tea because that's what my family did, but now that I've tried coffee I love it (as long as it's milky). Virtual coffee sounds like a great idea! Thanks for the interesting comment and for introducing me to a new writer.

Peg Cole from Northeast of Dallas, Texas on June 05, 2013:

Finally I can admit that I have been drinking coffee since the age of 4 when it was mostly due to the cream and sugar content. I only have one very large mug of coffee in the morning and that's it for the day. Coffee has become a part of the wake-up ritual - "Wake up and smell the coffee" where the hubster and I sit and slurp our first cup while we plan out our day. I will also share that my 93 yo Auntie has been drinking coffee for nearly all her life and is still living independently (although homebound) and is quite humorous and spry for her advanced years. She recently had an Echo Cardiogram and EKG and had a good report from the cardiologist. As you've pointed out, moderation is key and may help by reducing appetite, which in turn, provides many rewards.

Sharing this with my virtual coffee drinking friends here on HubPages at the Emerald Wells Cafe where we have unlimited cups of coffee daily. Hope you'll drop by to Mckbirdbks' latest episode and join us.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 03, 2013:

Thank you very much, kitkat1141. It is very nice to know that when we're drinking coffee we're getting some health benefits!

kitkat1141 from Ontario, Canada on May 03, 2013:

Thrilled to find out my daily coffee habit isn't killing me!! Thank you for pulling all of these studies together in one very well written hub.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on April 13, 2013:

Thank you very much for the comment, the vote and the share, Seeker7! I'm sorry that your father has Parkinson's Disease. Coffee is an interesting substance. I suspect that the response to it may sometimes be different in different individuals, as you suggest. It's wonderful when coffee is helpful!

Helen Murphy Howell from Fife, Scotland on April 13, 2013:

Hi Alicia,

well I have to say your excellent hub has just made my day as I adore coffee! But also the information was very interesting indeed! Although some of these surveys were criticised as you mention, it was a huge amount of people involved and there has to be some truth in their findings. I find the relationship to type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's Disease particularly interesting, since diabetes does run in some areas of my family and my Dad has Parkinson's Disease.

I also find the survey results interesting for my own personal reasons as well. I can have restless leg syndrome on occasion and so your told avoid coffee etc. But to be honest, with me coffee has either never caused me to have RLS and but I suspect at times it has actually helped. I haven't heard of anyone else having this happen to them, so maybe it's just my personal chemical make-up? Anyway I will continue to fly the flag for coffee and after reading your excellent hub I will be flying it even higher!!

Voted up + shared!!!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 25, 2013:

Coffee sounds like a good topic choice for a blog, MarieAlana1! I'll look at your blog soon. Thanks for the visit and the comment.

Marie Alana from Ohio on March 25, 2013:

Great hub! It was very thorough. Thanks for all of the great information! I have been working on a coffee blog for about 2 years now. Unfortunately, I haven't put anything in for about 25 days now, but still it is worth looking at. It has some more great information about this same topic. Here is the URL for it.... www.citmorning.blogspot.com.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 23, 2013:

Thanks for the visit and the comment, csgibson. Colombian coffee is very nice!

Craig Gibson from Traverse City Michigan on March 23, 2013:

I enjoyed your article and I found it to be quite informative. I live in Colombia and I drink 2 cups of the worlds best coffee every day. Thanks for the information.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 22, 2013:

Thank you very much for the comment, paneevino! Coffee is an interesting beverage. It does have some drawbacks, but it has some great benefits too!

Lillian Brooke on March 21, 2013:

Hi Linda, i am feeling so much happy and you made my happy heart because coffee is my favorite beverage. I would like to appreciate your great work and thanks for sharing so much information regarding coffee. When i read benefits of drinking coffee oh my god! I feel too much happy because my boy friend always said that " Don't drink coffee, it is so harmful for your health". Now i would like to share this hub with my friends and specially to my boy friend.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 20, 2013:

Hi, Careermommy. The role of coffee in the diet and the amount that should be drunk are interesting topics and are certainly worth thinking about! Thanks for the visit and the comment.

Tirralan Watkins from Los Angeles, CA on March 20, 2013:

Well, this is exciting information, Alicia, especially as I'm sipping my coffee while reading this hub. I was thinking of ways to eliminate coffee from my diet, but I will delve deeper and maybe reconsider. Thank you sharing this.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 20, 2013:

Hi, KenWu. Thanks for the visit. Like you, I never drink coffee at night. Coffee stops me from getting a good night's sleep, too!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 20, 2013:

Thank you so much for the shares, Kathryn! I appreciate them. I agree with you - coffee certainly isn't perfect, but its health benefits are very interesting.

KenWu from Malaysia on March 20, 2013:

I love coffee but has stopped it since two or three years ago. Just want to be healthier but it now seems that it has to get started again. One thing to note that don't drink coffee at night as it really makes you stay awake the whole night.

Kathryn from Windsor, Connecticut on March 20, 2013:

I love coffee, so I enjoy articles like this! Coffee may not be perfect, but it is nice when it has some good benefits. Thank you for sharing this with us. I am sharing this with others, including on Google Plus. I know many members of my family would enjoy this!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on February 17, 2013:

Hi, That Grrl. Yes, for some people that is a lot of coffee! Like you, I hope very much that my brain stays active as I age. I love researching and learning new things too. Thanks for the visit!

Laura Brown from Barrie, Ontario, Canada on February 17, 2013:

Four or five cups a day is a lot. I know I don't drink that much coffee. I don't drink that much of anything. But, nice to know it could prevent dementia or Alzheimers. I would hate to be one of those old people who has no clue. I love reading, researching and learning new stuff. To be otherwise would be like already being dead. I already want to live forever just so I can keep discovering everything. It bugs me that I will never have enough time. Probably why I drink coffee in the evening and then don't sleep.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 01, 2013:

Hi, epigramman. Thanks for the visit and for sharing your doctor's interesting comment about coffee. I hope you have a wonderful, very happy and healthy 2013.

epigramman on January 01, 2013:

Very interesting and thought provoking hub presentation here and I am a big believer in moderation so I have cut down on my coffee intake in the morning and that's it until I go into night shift work and then I have one during my work time. I have high blood pressure which seems to be okay now but the doctor warned me about coffee.

I am sending you , my fellow Canadian, sincere warm wishes for your own health, happiness and prosperity in the new year.

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