Hemp Seeds, Oil, and Milk: Great Nutrition and Health Benefits

Updated on August 1, 2017
AliciaC profile image

Linda Crampton is a teacher with an honors degree in biology. She enjoys exploring nutrition as well as the culture and history of food.

Shelled hemp seeds are a nutritious food.
Shelled hemp seeds are a nutritious food. | Source

A Nutritious and Useful Food

Hemp seeds are a very healthy, nutritious, and versatile food. They are rich in protein and contain important omega-3 fatty acids. They are also loaded with minerals and vitamins. Hemp seeds are a great food for vegans because the seeds can replace dairy in the diet. They can be ground to make a butter, blended with water to make a milk or cream, or pressed to make an oil, a protein powder, or a gluten-free flour.

I like to sprinkle hemp seeds over fruit and cereal. They work well in yogurt and on salads, too. They are also a useful ingredient in many recipes. The shelled seeds are available in my local supermarket as well as in specialty stores. They're sometimes known as hemp hearts.

Hemp seeds sold for food come from a special variety of the hemp plant. Some varieties of hemp contain significant quantities of a psychoactive chemical known as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Hemp plants cultivated for food contain negligible amounts of THC, however.

Shelled hemp seeds are a pale yellow-green colour. Hemp oil has a beautiful and more intense colour.
Shelled hemp seeds are a pale yellow-green colour. Hemp oil has a beautiful and more intense colour. | Source

Hemp Seed Products

Hemp seeds are widely available where I live. Products made from the seeds are also available, although I have to travel further to find them. Hemp seed milk and butter can be made at home or bought in a store. The store milk comes in plain or flavoured versions, just like dairy milk, and usually contains added vitamin B12. Plants don't contain this important nutrient. The butter has a rich taste and is a great spread. The oil made from the seeds can be used in smoothies and in salad dressings.

Hemp protein powder is sold in health food stores and can be added to foods and to drinks such as smoothies to increase their protein content. Hemp flour is also available and can provide a protein boost to baked goods.

Hemp seed oil and butter must be refrigerated in the store and at home. They should be sold and stored in dark, opaque containers that are tightly closed. Heat, light, and oxygen will damage the oil. Hemp seed milk is generally sold in a Tetra Pak carton in stores and must be refrigerated after the carton is opened. It isn't quite so essential to refrigerate the seeds, protein powder, or flour. It's advisable to do so, however, because they'll stay fresh for longer if they're kept cool. The storage recommendations and the expiry date should be checked when a hemp seed product is purchased.

Commercial hemp milk is white in colour, like dairy milk. I've only tried one brand of hemp seed butter. It has a rich green colour. Hemp protein powder is also green.

Salmon sashimi is made from raw fish. Salmon contains EPA, but our bodies can make this fatty acid with the help of stearidonic acid from hemp seeds.
Salmon sashimi is made from raw fish. Salmon contains EPA, but our bodies can make this fatty acid with the help of stearidonic acid from hemp seeds. | Source

Healthy Fatty Acids

When referring to the diet, the word "fat" conjures up a bad image in some people's minds. Fat is actually an essential nutrient. It's important that we choose healthy fat to eat, however, and that we eat it in moderation. Hemp seeds are a great source of healthy fat.

A two tablespoon serving of hemp seeds contains about 9 grams of fat. This fat consists mainly of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a small amount of monounsaturated (very healthy) and saturated (less healthy) fatty acids as well. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids (both polyunsaturated) are present in a little over a 3:1 ratio. Some nutritionists say that many of us are eating far too many omega-6 fatty acids in proportion to the omega-3 ones. Hemp seeds contain a good omega-6 to omega-3 ratio.

There are two essential fatty acids (EFAs) needed by humans. These are ones that scientists say we need but that we cannot make in our bodies. Linoleic acid, an omega-6 substance, is one EFA. The other one is alpha-linolenic acid, which is an omega-3 substance. Both EFAs are present in hemp seeds. They are sometimes known as "parent" fatty acids, since the body can make other fatty acids from them.

A Chocolate Hemp Milk Shake Recipe

Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Researchers are discovering that omega-3 fatty acids have many very important health benefits. They are necessary for proper brain function and also reduce inflammation, decrease the risk of heart disease, and improve the blood triglyceride and cholesterol profile. These benefits have been discovered for the animal forms of omega-3 fatty acid—EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) —which are found in oily fish such as salmon, tuna, sardines, mackerel, and halibut. Plants contain a different omega-3 fatty acid—ALA (alpha-linolenic acid). Our bodies convert ALA into EPA and DHA, although in limited amounts. Hemp seeds have an advantage in this respect compared to many plants, as described below.

Hemp oil is added to skin creams. Some people report that it's a very effective moisturizer.

Two Additional Fatty Acids in Hemp Oil

Hemp seed oil (or hemp oil) also contains small quantities of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA). Gamma-linolenic acid is an omega-6 substance made from linoleic acid and may be anti-inflammatory. Stearidonic acid is an omega-3 substance made from alpha-linolenic acid and increases the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid—one of the fish oil omega-3 fatty acids—in the body.

Since GLA and SDA are both made in our bodies, people might wonder why their presence in hemp seeds is significant. The reason is that the chemical reactions that make these fatty acids are sometimes hindered by other substances in the body. It's beneficial to eat preformed GLA and SDA instead of relying entirely on our body's production of these chemicals.

The benefits of hemp seed oil can be obtained by eating hemp seeds or the extracted oil. Unrefined, cold pressed hemp oil is green in color due its chlorophyll content and has a pleasant, slightly nutty taste. The oil shouldn't be heated, since high temperatures may damage its fatty acids.

How to Make Raw Hemp Seed Power Bars

Protein

Hemp seeds are a good source of protein. The seeds that I buy contain about 7 grams of protein in two tablespoons of seeds. This protein is useful for everyone, but especially for vegans, who eat no food that comes from animals. Foods from animal sources—especially meats and fish—contain much higher protein levels than foods from plant sources.

Protein has many vital functions in the body, including making up our muscles, fighting infections as antibodies, becoming blood-clotting proteins to prevent blood loss when we're wounded, forming enzymes to control chemical reactions, becoming hormones such as insulin, and transporting oxygen in the blood.

Hemp seeds contain a good quality protein which contains all the essential amino acids (ones that our bodies cannot make), although one of them (lysine) is present in a low quantity. Amino acids are joined together in our bodies to make the specific proteins that we need.

A large amount of the protein in hemp seeds exists in the form of edestin. This is a type of protein known as a globulin. Globulins also occur in our blood. Scientists haven't yet discovered whether edestin has any special benefit for us, apart from being a protein.

A Raw Hemp Seed Hummus Recipe

Other Nutrients in Hemp Seeds

Hemp seeds are an excellent source of manganese and magnesium and a good source of zinc, iron, thiamine, folate, and vitamin B6. They also contain fibre. The seeds are low in sodium and salt. Like all plant foods, they contain no cholesterol. They contain phytosterols instead, which resemble cholesterol in structure and function. Some types of phytosterols have been found to lower the level of LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) in our blood.

A Recipe for Hemp Seed Ranch Dressing

Using the Seeds in a Healthy Diet

Hemp seeds are a great addition to the diet and offer a range of very useful health benefits. I make sure that I eat them often, either on their own, as part of a recipe, or as a milk or oil.

Hemp seeds and their products are relatively new foods in the marketplace. Sometimes wonderful claims are made for their nutritional benefits which haven't yet been confirmed by scientists. Even without these extra benefits, though, hemp seeds and the products made from them are very healthy foods.

References

Nutrition in hemp seeds from WebMD

Nutrient content of hemp seeds from the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)

Information about hemp seeds and THC from the University of California, Berkeley

Questions & Answers

    © 2012 Linda Crampton

    Comments

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      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you very much for the comment and the votes, MsDora! I appreciate your visit.

      • MsDora profile image

        Dora Weithers 

        4 years ago from The Caribbean

        Voted Up and Useful! Thank you for this valuable information on the nutrition in Hemp seeds. Have not read or heard this much about it anywhere. The recipes are also helpful.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        5 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, drbj. That's an interesting question! In Canada, where quite a lot of hemp seeds are produced for food, by federal law industrial hemp plants must contain no more than an extremely low level of THC (no more than 0.3% of the weight of leaves and flowering parts). Some hemp seed sellers claim that it's impossible to fail a urinalysis test after eating hemp seeds. I have no concerns about the safety of eating hemp seed products for food, but if my athletic career was on the line - or any other career that involved a urine test - I wouldn't take any chances. The hemp seeds would probably cause no problem, but probably isn't good enough for some purposes! Thanks for the comment.

      • drbj profile image

        drbj and sherry 

        5 years ago from south Florida

        Hi, Alicia. Thanks for this fascinating hemp hub. People who need to take drug tests are advised not to eat any food with poppy seeds beforehand, as it might show traces of opium. Wonder if the same holds true for hemp seeds ... showing traces of cannabis? Just wonderin'.

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